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SEED GERMINATION SOIL TEMPERATURES

In general, it is better to sow your seeds a little late rather than too early.  If the soil temperature is not warm enough for the variety of seed you are sowing, the seed will often rot in the ground before it has a chance to germinate.  This is especially true with seeds that have not been treated with a chemical fungicide. ( We do not recommend using treated seeds).

Remember - the temperatures listed below are for the soil, not the air.

In the spring,  the air temperatures may be warm for a few days, but this will have little effect on the soil temperature.   Only when the days and nights both stay warm for an extended period of time will the soil temperature start to rise.

 
VARIETY
OPTIMUM SOIL TEMPERATURE FOR GERMINATION
DAYS TO GERMINATE AT OPTIMUM SOIL TEMPERATURE
 Bean, lima  85 degrees F  7 to 10 days
 Bean, snap  75 to 80 degrees F  7 days
 Beet  75 degrees F  7 to 14 days
 Broccoli  65 to 75 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Brussels sprout  68 to 75 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Cabbage  68 to 75 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Cantaloupe  80 to 85 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Carrot  75 degrees F  12 to 15 days
 Cauliflower  65 to 75 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Celery  70 to 75 degrees F  10 to 14 days
 Collard  70 to 75 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Corn  75 to 85 degrees F  7-10 days
 Cucumber  70 to 85 degrees F  7 to 10 days
 Eggplant  75 to 85 degrees F  10 to 12 days
 Endive  70 to 75 degrees F  10 to 14 days
 Kale  70 to 75 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Kohlrabi  70 to 75 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Lettuce  65 to 70 degrees F  7 to 10 days
 Melon  80 to 85 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Mustard Greens  70 degrees F  5 to 10 days
 Okra  80 to 85 degrees F 7 to 14 days
 Onion, bulbing  70 to 75 degrees F  10 to 14 days
 Onion, bunching  60 to 70 degrees F  10 to 14 days
 Parsnip 70 degrees F  14 to 21 days
 Pea  65 to 70 degrees F  7 to 14 days
 Pepper  78 to 85 degrees F  10 to 14 days
 Pumpkin  70 to 75 degrees F  7 to 10 days
 Radish  65 to 70 degrees F  5 to 7 days
 Rutabaga  65 to 70 degrees F  7 to 15 days
 Spinach  70 degrees F   7 to 14 days
 Spinach, New Zealand  75 degrees F  10 to 15 days
 Squash, Summer  75 to 85 degrees F  7 to 14 days
 Squash, Winter  75 to 80 degrees F  7 to 14 days
 Swiss Chard  70 to 75 degrees F  7 to 14 days
 Tomato  75 to 80 degrees F  7 to 14 days
 Turnip  65 to 70 degrees F  7 to 14 days
 Watermelon  75 to 85 degrees F  7 to 14 days